The presented essay is a review of the book by Yannick Bosc «Terror of human rights. The republicanism of Thomas Paine and Thermidor». Analyzing the discussion around the adoption of the Declaration of rights and duties of man and citizen of 1795 and Thomas Payne's speech during this discussion, the author analyses the refusal of Thermidorians from theconcept of "natural rights of man" and interprets Thermidor as a radical break with the previous ideological and political tradition. In his view, since that time, the democratic tendencies of the early years of the revolution have been replaced by the triumph of individualism, pragmatism and utilitarianism. Contrary to the established historiographical tradition, Bosc considers the modern political system of France not as a result of the victory of the "principles of 1789", but as a consequence of their defeat.