The article is focused on theoretical settings and practical principles of the French Protectorate administration’s policy towards educational institutions of Morocco. Based on various range of sources, the paper explores relations between French administration and the body of Muslim theologians-ulama, successes and failures of school education in the Protectorate epoch. Specific features and differences in the educational policy of L.-H. Lyautey’s administration (1912–1925) and following Residents-General are examined. Much attention is paid to confrontation between colonial circles and Sultan’s court in educational domain. Different approaches to the educational policy of Protectorate’s authorities, which were developed in Russian, Western and Arab historiography, are also covered in the article.